2 edition of Protein binding of xanthines and related compounds found in the catalog.
Protein binding of xanthines and related compounds
Antoni Edward Gadzala
Written in English
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||1 v., 180 leaves|
|Number of Pages||180|
The optimised compounds were docked flexibly into the 2VFA protein using the standard precision (SP) scoring function to evaluate the ligand–protein binding affinity. The output file generated in the form of the docking pose was visualised and analysed using the Maestro Pose Viewer module. The molecular docking technique is used to predict and describe the interaction (including the binding energy and structural parameters) of compounds resistant to the ACE2 protein in the human body and the PDB6LU7 protein in SARS-CoV The docking results reveal that there are potential compounds in the essential oil to prevent and treat SARS.
Quenching of the endogenous fluorescence of the two enzyme forms by xanthine, αKG, and DHP was used to characterize their binding properties. A XanA homology model was generated on the basis of the structure of the related enzyme TauD (PDB code 1OS7) and provided insights into the sites of posttranslational modification and substrate binding. - Binding activity of the compounds was evaluated in enzyme experiments with recombinant PfHGXPRT and human HGPRT. Binding properties to human counterpart are just briefly mentioned on the page 8. It could be better to include them to Table 1 for direct comparison with the PfHGXPRT data.
Finally, protein binding sites can be fully solvated prior to binding, or fully desolvated (Barratt et al., , Syme et al., ). The only common feature that seems to exist is that the contribution of the solvation effects to the ligand-protein binding thermodynamics can be . Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) catalyzes the conversion of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid with concomitant reduction of either NAD+ or O2. The enzyme is a target of drugs to treat hyperuricemia, gout and reactive oxygen-related diseases. Human diseases associated with genetically determined dysfunction of XOR are termed xanthinuria, because of the excretion of xanthine in urine.
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Luminita Fritea, Cecilia Cristea, in Methods in Enzymology, Xanthine Oxidase-Based Biosensors. Xanthines are a group of alkaloids commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in the treatment of asthma symptoms.
Therefore, the detection of these compounds is important, and it has been performed also using electrochemical biosensors. Ruben Vardanyan, Victor Hruby, in Synthesis of Best-Seller Drugs, Xanthines. Xanthines, compounds structurally related to caffeine (), have been used in the treatment of asthma for approximately years, and theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine), which was first prescribed for the treatment of asthma in , is still widely used for asthma and COPD and still remains a very.
Introduction. Xanthine oxidase (XO, EC ) is a form of molybdoflavin protein that plays an important role at the end of the catabolic sequence of the purine nucleotide metabolism in humans and a few other uricotelic species .It firstly catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine, and then transforms it into uric acid, which is excreted in the urine .Author: Benedetta Era, Giovanna L.
Delogu, Francesca Pintus, Antonella Fais, Gianluca Gatto, Eugenio Uriarte. A.K. Lund, in Comprehensive Toxicology, Xanthine Oxidase. Xanthine oxidase (XO) is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine, and of xanthine to uric acid, the process that reduces molecular oxygen and produces O 2 ⋅ −.XO has been characterized in the endothelium (Baker et al.
; Lacy et al. ), and XO-derived O 2 ⋅ − has been associated. Xanthine is a purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects (Dorland, 28th.
Xanthine oxidase (XO, sometimes ' XAO ') is a form of xanthine oxidoreductase, a type of enzyme that generates reactive oxygen species. These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and can further catalyze the oxidation of xanthine to uric enzymes play an important role in the catabolism of purines in some species, including humans.
In the cases of rhodopsin and the β 2-AR, receptor activation results in a contraction of the ligand binding site and an outward movement of the cytoplasmic ends of TM5 and 6, exposing the hydrophobic G protein binding platform comprised of the cytoplasmic ends of TM5 and 6 and the central receptor bundle (Rasmussen et al., Scheerer et al.
Alkaloid, any of a class of naturally occurring organic nitrogen-containing bases. Alkaloids have diverse and important physiological effects on humans and other animals. Well-known alkaloids include morphine, strychnine, quinine, ephedrine, and nicotine. Moini H., Guo Q., Packer L. () Xanthine Oxidase and Xanthine Dehydrogenase Inhibition by the Procyanidin-Rich French Maritime Pine Bark Extract, Pycnogenol®: A Protein Binding Effect.
In: Buslig B.S., Manthey J.A. (eds) Flavonoids in Cell Function. First, these compounds are structurally analogous to the adenine base of ADP-ribose (ADPR), an enzymatic product of PARG and have good potential for site-specific binding.
Second, xanthine. Rivas, J.R. Naranjo, in Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry (Second Edition), The cAMP response element-binding protein.
CREB is a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor activated by both cAMP and Ca 2+ signals. CREB is ubiquitously expressed and regulates the expression of. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.
To detect the levels of cytokines (IL-1β and IL) released by RAW macrophages in vitro, cells were preincubated in well plates (4 × 10 5 cells/well) for 12 h and pretreated by HSYA (25, 50, and μM) for 3 h. Cells were then washed twice with PBS and challenged by LPS (1 μg/mL) for another 24 h at 37°C under 5% CO 2.
Jain and Agrawal  performed a QSAR study with a group of xanthines, pteridinediones and related compounds showing TNF-a inhibitory activity.
The relationship between the inhibitory activity. used with xanthine oxidase. Judging from the reaction products, the reactions catalyzed by the two enzymes when acting on quaternary substrates are quite similar.
However, aldehyde oxidase can accomplish the latter reactions at pHwhereas the related xanthine oxidase activity is. Other related compounds (e.g., 10 mM hydantoin or 5 mM xanthine) supported growth less efficiently (data not shown) Although we cannot completely exclude degradation in the medium, these observations might indicate that oxo derivatives of heterocyclic nitrogen compounds such as allantoin can support the growth of Arabidopsis as sole nitrogen.
Xanthine (/ ˈ z æ n θ iː n / or / ˈ z æ n θ aɪ n /; archaically xanthic acid; systematic name 3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione) is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms. Several stimulants are derived from xanthine, including caffeine, theophyline, and theobromine.
Xanthine is a product on the pathway of purine degradation. It is created from. A recombinant protein containing only GAF-A binds cGMP with high affinity, and cGMP binding causes a large conformational change. GAF-A also provides high-affinity dimerization contacts between.
Distribution and Plasma Protein Binding. The distribution of a drug is often measured as a volume of distribution (Vdss), and is a measure of the fluid volume that would be required to contain the amount of drug present in the body at the same concentration as that measured in the plasma.
The flacca tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) mutant displays a wilty phenotype as a result of abscisic acid (ABA) deficiency.
The Mo cofactor (MoCo)-containing aldehyde oxidases (AO; EC ) are thought to play a role in the final oxidation step required for ABA biosynthesis. AO and related MoCo-containing enzymes xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH; EC ) and nitrate reductase (EC a purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi.
it is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. the methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. It has been reported that Glu, Glu and Arg residues play key roles in the hydroxylation of substrate xanthine [25,27e29].
A hydrogen binding with Glu residue for all compounds was. The identified binding pockets of both ligands were also found by AlloPred and PARS. Chlorogenic acid binding site was found in the binding pocket between the protein subunits. This inhibitor forms hydrogen bonds with AlaArg and Thr from one subunit and with SerAsn and Gln from the other subunit.The presence of 3'-4' and/or o-dihydroxyphenyl (catechol) groups or 5-OH and/or 3-OH in conjugation with a C4 keto group in phenolic compounds structure is important for metal ions binding .